Gd nanoparticles’ impact on living cells in presence of low frequency EMF and strong MF

Dace Grauda, Anton Kolodynski, Inta Belogrudova, Isaak Rashal, Lada Bumbure, Yuri Dekhtyar, Yuta Erba, Vineta Zemite


Nanoparticles are defined as particles with size less than 100 nm and include natural, incidental and engineered nanoparticles. It is recognized that nanoparticles produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside and outside the cell and are the key factor in toxicological effects. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) occur primarily from 50 and 60 Hz electric power lines and from electric devices and installations in buildings. In medicine MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to form images of the body. Majority of research shows no genotoxic, or otherwise harmful, effects caused by any part of MRI. Gadodiamide is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent, used in MR imaging procedures to assist in the visualization of blood vessels. It is commonly marketed under the trade name Omniscan. Plant immature gametic cells were used as model cells in the research as very vulnerable to environmental influence. ROS production as a result of oxidative stress in plant cells has great influence on cell self fluorescence that could be detected by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry (FCM) is widely used method for investigation of different cell parameters, including cell oxidative stress determination on base of educed peroxidase intensity. The aim of this study was to determine by FCM the combined effects of Gd nanoparticles (GdNPs) on intracellular concentration of ROS in plant immature gametic cells in presence of  both 50 Hz ELF EMF and strong MF. A significant difference of fluorescence was observed between control cultures of gametic cells and gametic cells after 1 hour incubation with suspension of GdNPs in all used densities of ELF EMF. The most effective influence on cells were observed using ELF EMF with density 200 μT. The experiment with MR showed that GdNPs the MR dramatically decreased the cell fluorescence. The cells incubated in presence of GdNPs had considerable extent of relative fluorescence (RF) after influence of MR in comparison to cells cultivated without GdNPs.

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